Independent and Dependent Clauses
A clause is a group of related words. A clause has both a subject and a predicate. There are two types of clauses.
Independent Clause - An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. Here is an example: We walk to school. This sentence expresses a complete thought and can stand
Dependent Clause - A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence.They are sometimes called dependent clauses because they "depend" on a main clause to give them meaning.
Here is an example:
when the cake is done baking. This clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone.
An independent clause is a group of words that contains a
subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a
Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.
A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent
When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
Dependent Marker Word
A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause
that makes it into a dependent clause.
When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy.
Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as, if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.
Connecting dependent and independent clauses
There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and independent marker words.
1. Coordinating Conjunction
The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet (fanboys). When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating
Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the
2. Independent Marker Word
An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These
words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.
Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate
because of the noise.
Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore.